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Electronic navigation chart

Today’s mariner needs a tool of a similar quality standard as the traditional standard paper chart (SNC), yet which fits the demands of a new navigational age. So the advent of electronic chart is becoming increasingly more common, particularly onboard commercial vessels.
The electronic chart provides significant benefits in terms of navigation safety and improved operational efficiency. More than simply a computer display, an electronic chart system is a real time navigation system that integrates a variety of information that is displayed and interpreted by the mariner

Introduction

Today’s mariner needs a tool of a similar quality standard as the traditional standard paper chart (SNC), yet which fits the demands of a new navigational age. So the advent of electronic chart is becoming increasingly more common, particularly onboard commercial vessels.

The electronic chart provides significant benefits in terms of navigation safety and improved operational efficiency. More than simply a computer display, an electronic chart system is a real-time navigation system that integrates a variety of information that is displayed and interpreted by the mariner

It is an automated decision aid capable of continuously determining a vessel’s position in relation to land, charted objects, aids-to-navigation, and unseen hazards.

Electronic navigation chart

I>Electronic navigation chart:
There are two types of electronic chart: raster charts and vector charts
1> Raster chart
ARCS charts are exact digital copies of the world-leading BA paper charts. All ARCS charts have the same familiar appearance and use the same internationally recognised symbology as the Admiralty paper chart series. This familiarity, combined with accurate satellite positioning in an ECS or ECDIS navigation system, improves situational awareness and helps crews to understand critical information at moments of peak workload and pressure. And this brings confidence and calm to the bridge.

RNCs have the following attributes:

  • RNCs are a facsimile of official paper charts
  • RNCs are produced according to the international standards set by the IHO
  • RNCs are regularly updated with official update information. This is distributed digitally

Global coverage:
With over 3,000 official charts available, ARCS provides extensive raster chartcoverage of international shipping routes, main ports and harbours in acomprehensive range of scales.By combining the wide coverage, familiarity and ease-of-use of ARCS with AVCS, you get the most comprehensive and trusted digital chart service available for ships trading internationally.

2>Vecto chart:

ENC is a database of all the objects (points, lines, areas, etc.) represented on a chart and standardized content, structure and form issued together with ECDIS use from the state authorities, the jurisdiction of the Department of Water. ENC containing all useful information for maritime safety and may contain extra information is usually indicated on the paper are considered necessary for maritime safety.
ENC using a device approved ECDIS and certification along with additional equipment to store (back up) is a unique method to navigation in an era without paper charts.
ENCs have the following attributes: 

  • ENCS content is based on source survey data from the relevant hydrographic offices or the data shown in the official paper charts
  • ENCs are compiled and encoded according to the international standards set by the IHO
  • Positions on ENCs are referred to the World Geodetic System 1984 Datum (WGS84). This is directly compatible with GNSS positions
  • ENCs are issued only by or on the authority of of a Government, authorized Hydrographic Office or other relevant government institutions
  • ENCs are regularly updated with official update information that is normally distributed digitally

ENCs and RNCs kept up to date

II> ENCs and RNCs kept up to date:
In order to meet the requirements of SOLAS V/27, nautical charts must be kept up to date by incorporating Notices to Mariners and other chart updates issued by Hydrographic Offices. ENCs and RNCs are normally kept up to date by applying regular, update information to the chart data via a digital data file. The update file may be transferred by wireless transmission, or on a suitable media, such as a CD-ROM. In these cases the updating of the chart database is done automatically by the ECDIS. Another standard function of ECDIS is the capability to update the ENC manually. This may be required when a digital update is not available or a hydrographic office has issued update information in a non-digital form. At present most ENC and RNC updates are supplied to ships on CD-ROM but „remote updating‟ using satellite (or, when in port, shore based) telecommunications is becoming more and more common. A number of ENC service providers already have updating services using e-mail, the worldwide web and other means. Details may be obtained from ENC distributors

SENC (system electronic navigation chart)

III> SENC (system electronic navigation chart):
There are two classes of electronic chart display system:

  • Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) means a navigation information system which, with adequate back up arrangements, can be accepted as complying with the up-to-date chart required by regulation V/19 & V/27 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention, as amended, by displaying selected information from a system electronic navigational chart (SENC) with positional information from navigation sensors to assist the mariner in route planning and route monitoring, and if required display additional navigation-related information

  • ECS (Electronic Chart System):ECS is a navigation information system that electronically displays vessel position and relevant nautical chart data and information from an ECS Database on a display screen, but does not meet all the IMO requirements for ECDIS and is not intended to satisfy the SOLAS Chapter V requirements to carry a navigational chart.